Drug Test Glossary
This is by no means a complete glossary and terms are being added weekly.
A specimen that contains a substance that is too high not expected to be present in human urine.
BBlind specimen or blind performance test specimen:
A specimen submitted to a laboratory for quality control testing purposes.
A drug or alcohol test that has a problem identified that cannot be or has not been corrected.
Chain of custody (COC):
Confirmation (or confirmatory) drug test:
A specimen with creatinine and specific gravity values that are lower than expected for human urine.
Any person who is hired by an employer and subject to drug testing and/or alcohol testing.
EIA -- Enzyme immunoassay. An immunoassay procedure used to identify drugs of abuse in urine by attaching an enzyme tag to the drug in question.
Elimination -- The process by which drugs and metabolites are removed from the body.
External testing -- The testing of urine specimens by professional technologists or technicians at a commercial laboratory located away from probation or parole facilities.
FFalse negative -- Report that a drug or metabolite has not been detected when the drug or drug metabolite is present in the specimen.
False positive -- Report that a drug or metabolite has been detected when the drug or drug metabolite is not present in the specimen.
FPIA -- Fluorescence polarization immunoassay. An immunoassay procedure used to identify drugs of abuse in urine by attaching a tag that glows or fluoresces to the drug in question.
GGas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS):
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A specialized form of gas chromatography used in conjunction with mass spectrometry. GC/MS is considered the method of choice for the unequivocal identification of a drug.
HHair drug test
Hair drug tests generally need about 50 strands of hair. The hair sample should be collected at an accredited lab with full chain of custody documentation. The hair is then sealed into a container until the hair drug test is performed. The hair drug test itself involves dissolving the hair in some type of chemical which will release toxins in the hair. The toxins are then analyzed for drug use.
Hallucinogens -- A major classification of natural and synthetic drugs whose primary effect is to distort the senses. These drugs can produce hallucinations or experiences that depart from reality. Included in this classification are lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA, MDMA), mescaline, peyote, PCP, and psilocybin.
Heroin -- A semisynthetic opiate derivative used in a variety of cough and cold preparations. Its abuse potential is between that of codeine and morphine.
HPLC -- High-performance liquid chromatography. A method that used liquids to separate drugs and metabolites to detect drugs in a specimen.
HPTLC -- High-performance thin-layer chromatography represents a specialized form of TLC developed for drugs that appear in low concentrations in urine.
IInitial drug test:
The test used to differentiate a negative specimen from one that requires further testing.
Immunoassay -- A procedure used to identify substances, such as drugs of abuse, in urine, based on the competition between tagged and untagged antigens to combine with antibodies. The uncombined, tagged antigen is an indicator of the drug present in the urine specimen.
Initial validity test:
Invalid drug test:
Any U.S. laboratory certified by HHS under the National Laboratory Certification Program.
Laboratory testing -- The testing of urine specimens by professional technologists or technicians at a commercial laboratory.
MMedical Review Officer (MRO):
A person who is a licensed physician and who is responsible for receiving and reviewing laboratory results.
Mass spectrometer -- A detection device that specifically identifies and quantifies the constituents of complex fluid mixtures. It is usually used in conjunction with a gas chromatograph.
Metabolism -- The action of enzymes to alter a drug chemically and facilitate its removal from the body.
Metabolite -- The product of metabolism.
Methadone -- An opioid used in the maintenance treatment of heroin dependency because it prevents heroin withdrawal symptoms and fulfills the addict's physical need for the drug.
Methamphetamine -- A central nervous system stimulant similar to amphetamine sulfate but more potent. It is a member of the amphetamine class and is preferred by habitual amphetamine users. In intravenous form, it produces an almost instantaneous onset of the drug's effect. Slang names include "meth," "speed," and "crystal."
Methaqualone -- Nonbarbiturate sedative/hypnotic that produces sleep for about 6 to 8 hours. It also produces muscular relaxation, feelings of contentment, and total passivity.
Morphine -- The principal active ingredient in opium. It is considered by some to be superior to other pain relievers.
NNational Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA):
Nanogram -- One billionth of a gram.
Narcotic -- Medically, usually refers to any drug that dulls the senses. It produces a sense of well-being in small doses and causes insensibility, stupefication, and even death in large doses.
Negative results -- Test results indicating a drug is not detected at or above the threshold of a test.
OOral drug test:
OTC -- Over-the-counter drug available without a prescription.
Oxycodone -- A semisynthetic morphine derivative used as a pain reliever. Trade names include Percodan, Percocet-5, and Tylox.
The drug test reports the use of drugs.
PCP -- Phencyclidine. A powerful depressant used illicitly for its hallucinogenic properties. It is most often smoked after being sprinkled on parsley, marijuana, or tobacco. Side effects include agitation, irritability, extreme excitation, visual disturbances, and delirium. Slang terms include "angel dust," "crystal," "super week," "rocket fuel," and "goon."
Positive result -- Drug detected at or above the threshold of a test.
Presumed positive -- A specimen identified at or above the screening test threshold but not yet subjected to confirmation testing.
QQualitative -- Chemical analysis to identify the components of a mixture.
Quantitative -- Chemical analysis to determine the amounts of proportions of a mixture.
RRandom drug test:
Random sampling (collection) -- Obtaining juvenile urine specimens for testing without the juvenile's prior knowledge of when a specimen will be requested. This means unscheduled testing and should not be confused with the classic research design definition.
Return to duty drug test:
RIA -- Radio immunoassay. An immunoassay procedure used to identify drugs of abuse in urine by attaching a radioactive tag to the drug in question.
SSaliva drug test
Saliva drug testing, aka mouth or oral swab drug testing, can generally detect drug use in the last few days. This makes slaiva drug testing excellent for post-accident drug testing. The test involves taking a swab of saliva from the individual and sending it off to a lab for testing. Saliva is based on the blood so they can be difficult to beat without some type of adulterant.
Screening test -- An initial test that is used to detect drugs of abuse in urine. Screening tests are less expensive and not as accurate as confirmation tests.
Specificity -- The ability of a procedure to react only with the drugs or metabolites being tested and to exclude other substances. A specific procedure is rarely positive if a substance is truly absent; thus, few false positive results will occur.
TTHC -- Tetrahydrocannabinol. The primary psychoactive compound present in marijuana.
THC Drug Test -- Drug testing for the use of THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. A THC drug test can be performed either on hair, urine, saliva, sweat or blood.
Threshold -- A defined urine, drug, or metabolite concentration; a value at or above threshold indicates a positive result, and a value below indicates a negative result. Also called the cutoff.
TLC -- Thin-layer chromatography. A chromatographic procedure used to identify drugs of abuse in urine using a thin layer of material such as silicon as a carrier. The separated substances are dyed, and the resultant color and migration patterns are used to identify the drugs in question.
UUrine drug test
Also known as urinalysis, this procedure requires that one provide a sample of urine.
In some instances a urine drug test is performed on site with a 'dip stick' which is dipped in the urine sample and a chemical reaction occurs. If this tests positive then generally a second confirmation urine test is performed with ggas chromatography/mass spectrometry (also known as GCMS), high performance liquid chromatography or immunoassay analysis. at a certified lab.
A drug test result or validity testing result from a laboratory that has undergone review and final determination by the MRO.
WWorkplace drug testing
X'X' or ecstasy